Clinical Psychologist

clinical psychologist

One of the greatest gifts in working as a clinical psychologist is the number of available career options, options that might not seem readily apparent when working through the classes, papers, and tests of graduate school, but options that become reality after receiving a master’s or doctorate, and completing the requisite licensing requirements.

What are the differences between a Psy.D. and a Ph.D.?

In most cases, clients seeking psychotherapy from a clinical psychologist would not know or care about the differences between academic programs offering either a Psy.D. or Ph.D.

Clients seek effective therapeutic care, care that helps them correct or mediate dysfunctional thoughts and behaviors, and clinicians trained in both degree-models provide effective, professional, and proven psychological services… Read more about Psy.D. vs. Ph.D.

In addition to the guards, haircutters, and teachers, many of those employed at correctional facilities are psychologists, social workers, and counselors. This doesn’t include the numbers of children, spouses, friends, and other family members affected by one prisoner’s imprisonment, necessitating even more trained psychologists to provide psychotherapy. Nor do the numbers reflect the victims of the crimes committed by the prisoners, those who also require psychotherapy to cope with and manage the harmful effects of becoming victims.

Where are Clinical Psychologists Needed?

In short, clinical psychologists are needed to help a vast number of individuals, in a large number of U.S. facilities and organizations. Here’s a list of some of the organizations and industries that employ clinical psychologists:

  • Individual and group practices
  • Mental health and counseling centers and organizations
  • Healthcare organizations such as hospital and clinics
  • Elementary, junior high and high schools
  • Universities and colleges
  • Correctional institutions and halfway houses
  • Military and veterans hospitals, clinics, bases and other organizations
  • Federal government and state agencies

What do Clinical Psychologists Do?

Just as a large number of positions exist for clinical psychologists across a broad range of organizations, these positions require an equally large number of diverse duties and responsibilities. However, most of these positions require a strong component of the following:

Assessment and Diagnosis

To properly assess individuals for a range of mental illnesses, developmental psychopathology, cognitive and neurodevelopmental disorders, and maladaptive interpersonal behaviors, clinical psychologists must understand the empirical research on measurement and evaluation. In addition, they must be able to synthesize this large amount of research data, using the appropriate testing instruments for their client population.

Clinical psychologists also must be able to access the correct decision-making models in order to apply a diagnosis, using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R). After diagnosing clients, they recommend a preferred course of treatment to other psychology professionals, or apply and administer the treatment plan themselves.

Additionally, clinical psychologists must be able to accurately assess the effectiveness of specific psychological techniques and interventions used in psychotherapy. These assessments are crucial for the healing of current and future clients.

Conduct Psychotherapy

Psychotherapists use a number of techniques and interventions to treat a range of illnesses, illnesses often resulting from dysfunctional thoughts or cognitions, and displayed through harmful or distressing behaviors. Sometimes these dysfunctional thoughts and behaviors affect physical health as well, as many stress-related illnesses are now linked to maladaptive mental health disorders.

Usually in graduate school, clinical psychology students gravitate toward one of the four main psychological frameworks, moving toward the theories and orientations for treatment that the framework supports. See clinical psychology research for more information about these frameworks.

But clinical psychology students also explore the theories of each framework, acquainting themselves with all the available treatment options, and the research supporting the effectiveness of one approach over another for specific conditions. This more integrative approach to psychotherapy helps graduates who desire a more general position after graduation, positions that require an understanding of all available modalities, and the ability to administer them depending on the client population.

Specific Careers for Clinical Psychologists

Many clinical psychologists go into private practice, either solely or with a group of other psychologists. In 2001, the American Psychological Association estimated that about 65% were working in some type of private practice. Some of these practices specialize in one type of disorder, or psychological framework.

For example, some private practices form around psychotherapists adhering to the psychodynamic framework, a framework stemming from Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic approach. Similar practices are established with humanistic psychologists, or those who specialize in family systems or cognitive-behavioral therapies. However, some practices employ psychologists regardless of their specialty, creating a facility that offers many different approaches and orientations for a wide range of problems.

For those working in medical facilities and other organizations, a clinical psychology career depends on the client population. For instance, a clinical psychologist working for a children’s hospital will need in-depth knowledge of neurodevelopmental disorders and psychopathologies related to childhood and adolescence. (see Adolescence Developmental Psychology).

Similarly those working for the court system as clinical forensic psychologists must understand how legal and criminal justice issues intersect with psychological theories and understanding. Forensic psychologists must also have in-depth knowledge of psychological criminal testing and evaluation methodologies.

And most clinical sports psychologists must know and be able to teach clients specific solution-based solutions, most often based on the cognitive-behavioral framework that specializes in quick, goal-directed interventions.

In summary, the industry or facility where a clinical psychology works will determine the type of specialized psychological theories and skills he or she applies and uses to help people heal and lead more functional lives.

Examples of Titles of Clinical Psychologists:

  • Child Psychologist
  • Forensic Psychologist
  • Senior Psychologist in hospital setting
  • Domestic Violence Psychologist
  • Child Abuse psychologist
  • Health Psychologist
  • Military Psychologist
  • Prison Psychologist
  • Substance Abuse Psychologist
  • Mood Disorder Psychologist
  • Sports Psychologist
  • Research Psychologist
  • Professor of Psychology

Education and Licensure

To practice as a clinical psychologist, every state requires licensing. For more information on the type of degree required for this career, contact schools offering master’s degree programs in clinical psychology or doctorate programs in clinical psychology. These schools can help you explore all the available career paths for clinical psychology professionals.

Sample Job Listing For a Clinical Psychologist in a Children’s Hospital

Job title: Clinical Psychologist (Child & Adolescent)

  • Doctorate degree in psychology with specialization in children and adolescents.
  • Completion of supervised internship; preferably post-doctoral training in child psychology.


Provide traditional behavioral health services for children, adolescents and families. These services include psychological assessment, diagnostic, and treatment for a variety of disorders, including:

Candidates should have a knowledge of neuropsychological testing/assessments.

Additional qualifications

  • Current with timely psychological research on the assessment and diagnosis of children and adolescents, as well as abuse and trauma literature.
  • Excellent leadership skills. Ability to communicate both in written form and orally with a multidisciplinary team of professionals, giving direction, and documenting interventions, treatments, and outcomes.

Salaries for those working in the many fields of clinical psychology rank among some of the highest salaries of all psychology-related jobs, and the forecast for job growth remains strong for the next several years.

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, increased demand for psychology services translates into a 14% growth rate for psychology professionals through 2016-2026. And, depending on education, psychological specialty, and experience, salaries for clinical psychology positions are expected to remain high.

Competitive Salaries for Clinical Psychologists

As per the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2022, clinical psychologists, categorized under the clinical, counseling, and school psychology job sector, earned a median wage of $90,130.

But salaries rise even higher as individuals in this field earn more credentials, experience, and certifications. The highest 10% of clinical psychology professionals earn more than $168,790, according to the BLS. These individuals are licensed in their respective states – a requirement for all who want to work as clinical psychologists -and many have achieved additional certification in areas such as psychoanalysis, rehabilitation, forensic, group, school, clinical health, and couple and family psychology.

* Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2022, Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists

Where do Clinical Psychologists Work?

Typical places of employment for clinical psychology professionals are in offices of mental health practitioners, hospitals, physicians’ offices, outpatient mental health and substance abuse centers, correctional facilities, law enforcement agencies, and other public and private organizations.

After gaining experience, many clinical psychologists enter private practice. The BLS reports that as of 2008, about 34% of these professionals were categorized as “self-employed.” Many also teach at universities and colleges, and some become self-employed psychologists and simultaneously teach.

Titles, Degrees and Other Requirements

Most positions for clinical psychologists require advanced degrees – master’s or Ph.D’s. Professionals in private practice usually have a Ph.D.

In addition to state licensing, most positions also require additional certification in specialized areas. And many positions require internships and post-doctoral work in these specialized areas, and require continuing education courses to renew licenses and certifications.

The chart below represents examples of job titles for clinical psychology professionals. The job requirements concerning education level, experience, and additional certifications will depend on the job specifications of the hiring organization.

Clinical Psychology Salary Vs Similar Occupations

Job Title*Average Salary
Clinical Psychologist$90,130
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists$139,280
Psychologists, All Other$106,420
School psychologists$81,620

Source: 2022 Occupational Employment Statistics and 2022-32 Employment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics,

If you enjoy helping people and want to enter one of the many fields of clinical psychology, request information from schools offering master’s degree programs or doctoral degree programs in psychology.

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